Your Thyroid and Migraines: What is the Relationship?

Your thyroid gland is an impressive little powerhouse. It is responsible for maintaining your body’s metabolism and produces two hormones that help maintain core body temperature and production of amino acids and proteins. However, these hormones are also notorious for causing all sorts of health conditions when they are out of balance.

It’s no surprise then to learn that your thyroid function can cause headaches, and even migraines if it’s not up to par. But what’s the connection between headaches and thyroid function? In order to understand the link, we need to know what the thyroid gland is and exactly what it does.


Your Thyroid Gland

Shaped like a butterfly, the thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck just below the larynx or Adam’s apple. Like everything else in the body, it takes instructions from the brain, specifically the hypothalamus. This gland in the brain secretes TRH or thyrotropin-releasing hormone.

Thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH (also known as thyrotropin) is released by the pituitary gland in response to the release of TRH by the hypothalamus. TSH that does exactly what its name suggests. It stimulates the thyroid gland to produce the hormones triiodothyronine or T3, and thyroxine, or T4, which maintains metabolism among other things. To make these hormones, the thyroid gland uses iodine and tyrosine, which we mainly get from our diet (this is why iodine was added to salt in 1924).

Hypothyroidism, or an underactive thyroid gland, is the most common thyroid condition affecting people in the U.S. today. An underactive thyroid gland means that your thyroid isn’t producing enough of the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Since the thyroid is responsible for maintaining a number of different systems, including metabolism, an underactive thyroid can cause a variety of symptoms including:

  • Weight gain
  • Fatigue
  • Mood swings
  • Depression
  • Hair Loss
  • Reduced cognitive function (brain fog)
  • Irregular menstrual periods
  • Muscle fatigue and soreness
  • Headaches
  • Cold hands and feet due to poor circulation

Because these symptoms are so common, hypothyroid conditions can often go unnoticed or ignored by the person suffering the symptoms and their physician. Many people can go years without treatment, never knowing anything is wrong until the symptoms become unbearable or cause a secondary medical condition that requires urgent treatment.

Hyperthyroidism is a condition where the thyroid gland is overactive and produces too much T3 and T4. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:

  • Anxiety
  • Weight loss
  • Hair Loss
  • Hand tremors or shaking
  • Hyperactivity
  • Sweating
  • Irritability and moodiness
  • Sensitivity to high temperatures
  • Missed or light menstrual periods

Hyperthyroidism can also be easily missed by both patient and physician. Many people with an overactive thyroid have had these symptoms for as long as they can remember and may assume it’s just their nature or part of their personality. But if any of the above symptoms sound all too familiar to you, call the National Headache Institute today.


Diagnosing Thyroid Disease

It’s common for your physician to check your TSH levels on a yearly basis. But unfortunately, this isn’t a reliable indicator of thyroid function. Other blood tests are required to get a definitive diagnosis. If you suspect your thyroid isn’t functioning properly, our doctors at the National Headache Institute can measure the levels of T3 and T4 via blood work along with TSH levels to determine if your thyroid is over or underactive.

Thyroid antibodies can also be checked to diagnose other thyroid conditions such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. An ultrasound can also be done to determine if there is a growth or cyst on the thyroid gland, causing it to function ineffectively.


Headaches and Thyroid Function

A recent study published in Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain found that thyroid and Migraines had a strong connection with 21 percent of people who suffered a pre-existing headache condition were more likely to develop hypothyroidism. For migraine sufferers, that number jumps to 41 percent.

This isn’t surprising considering past research has shown that people who suffered from migraines in early childhood often developed hypothyroidism as an adult. Research has also shown that once hypothyroidism has developed, migraines and headaches become more frequent and severe. While this research shows a strong link between the two conditions, there is no definitive answer as to why they are linked or if one condition causes the other.


Treating Thyroid Disease

Treating over or underactive thyroid conditions often improves headaches and migraines. If you have an underactive thyroid, our physicians may recommend a thyroid replacement medication. If your thyroid is overactive, further testing may be necessary to find the cause of the problem to determine treatment options.

Identifying the right treatment for a thyroid condition can be problematic. It requires frequent blood tests to find the right dosage of medication to properly replace the missing thyroid hormones, which requires patience by both physician and patient. Rest assured our doctors will find the right treatment for you.

If you think there is a problem with your thyroid gland and that it might be causing or exacerbating your headaches, don’t suffer. Call us today or visit our website to find the location nearest you.

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